ORP Overview -
A description of ORP's purpose and capabilities.
Introduction to ORP -
A brief introduction into ORP as an Linear programming
application and a review of ORP's important assumptions.
ORP Model Description -
How ORP does optimal distributions from Tax-Advantaged
ORP server architecture -
A diagram of ORP's structure and principle components.
The Use of Historical Averages -
A discussion of the pros and cons of using constant
averages to represent investment rates of
return and other rates in retirement plan modeling.
Consequences of Not Modeling Income Taxes -
A brief discussion on the importances of including progressive income
taxes in retire models.
A Comparison of ORP and Forecaster3 -
Forecaster 3 is a retirement plan simulator the is
available on the Internet at no charge. This document
contrasts ORP's optimization to Forecaster 3' simulation.
A Three Step Procedure for Sustainable Retirement Savings
Anecdotal evidence indicates that some ORP users run
ORP annually to determine their savings withdrawals
for the current year and their disposable income for
the year's spending budget. This study demonstrates
that from a historical perspective this is a safe and
To appear in Journal of Financial Planning on August 2017
Measuring the Financial Consequences of IRA to Roth IRA Conversions
IRS regulations permit the conversion of IRA savings to
a Roth IRA, providing that income taxes are paid on
the conversion. This study shows that while conversions
have only a small effect on total disposable income
the effect on when taxes are paid is
Journal of Personal Finance - Volume 15 Issue 1, Spring 2016, Page 47
A Quantitative Evaluation of Four Retirement Spending Models
Most retirement calculators assume constant spending,
adjusted for inflation, throughout retirement. Studies
show that retiree spending patterns are not constant
but vary by the age of the retiree.
This paper demonstrates the consequences of adapting
the alternate spending models proposed by researchers.
Journal of Personal Finance - Volume 14 Issue 2, Autumn 2015,
Mitigating the Impact of Personal Income Taxes on Retirement
A study demonstrating the superiority of optimal
withdrawal schedules over the conventional wisdom
of depleting the taxable account first, the the
IRA, and finally the Roth IRA.
Journal of Personal Finance - Volume 14, Issue 1, Spring 2015, Page 17